CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Syllabus, Exam Pattern, Sample Papers

Physics Wallah Academic Expert
November 28, 2023

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24: CBSE administers the Class 12 Biology 2023-24 exam for Indian school students on the CBSE curriculum. This test is pivotal in students' academic progression, influencing final grades and entry into science and biology programs. Excelling demands thorough preparation, profound biological comprehension, and efficient time handling for theory and practical aspects. This article has all the information about the CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-2024 exam.

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Overview

The CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 examination is a significant milestone for students who are pursuing science during their higher secondary education. Biology is a field that talks about the intricate realm of living organisms, investigating their structures, functions, and interactions. The CBSE Class 12 Biology test is designed to evaluate students' comprehension of this subject and their capacity to apply the principles they've acquired. 

Success in the CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 exam can unlock various educational and career pathways. To excel, students should be dedicated to their studies, practice regularly, and approach the test with a profound understanding of biological principles. The knowledge and competencies gained from this course are not just vital for academic achievement but also for a more profound understanding of the natural world. Check the table below for more details on the CBSE class 12 Biology 2023-24 exam: 

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Overview



Exam date


Exam time

10:30 AM to 1:30 PM

Exam duration

3 hours

Maximum marks


Question paper pattern

5 sections, 33 questions (all compulsory)

Section A

16 questions of 1 mark each (total 16 marks)

Section B

5 questions of 2 marks each (total 10 marks)

Section C

7 questions of 3 marks each (total 21 marks)

Section D

2 case-based questions of 4 marks each (total 8 marks)

Section E

3 questions of 5 marks each (total 15 marks)

Question types

Multiple choice questions, short answer type questions, long answer type questions, case-based questions


NCERT Class 12 Biology textbook

Difficulty level


CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Syllabus

CBSE has released the CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 syllabus on its official website. It revises the syllabus periodically for students' benefit. The Class 12 Biology Syllabus for 2023-24 has undergone some changes compared to the 2022-23 syllabus. Therefore, Class 12 students can consult the CBSE Biology Syllabus to excel in the subject. You can download the CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Biology for the academic year 2023-24 from this link.

Recommended Books: 

The syllabus PDF encompasses all vital topics, offering students a clear understanding of the syllabus. To access the CBSE Biology Syllabus for Class 12, simply click the link below. The CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus comprises units like Reproduction, Genetics and Evolution, Biology and Human Welfare, Biotechnology and its Applications, and Ecology and Environment. Furthermore, the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus furnishes details regarding the marking scheme for each topic in Biology. Check the table below for a detailed syllabus topic.

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Syllabus

Unit No.


Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter 2: Reproduction in Flowering Plants

This chapter covers the structure of flowers, the development of male and female gametophytes, various types of pollination, the agents involved in pollination, and provides examples. It also explores outbreeding mechanisms, the interaction between pollen and pistil, double fertilisation, and the post-fertilization events, including the development of endosperm, embryo, seed, and fruit formation. Special modes like apomixis, parthenocarpy, and polyembryony are discussed, along with the significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

This chapter delves into the male and female reproductive systems, offering microscopic insights into the testis and ovary. It explains the processes of gametogenesis, including spermatogenesis and oogenesis, and details the menstrual cycle. Additionally, the chapter covers fertilisation, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation, pregnancy, placenta formation (at an elementary level), and basic concepts of lactation.

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

In this chapter, the importance of reproductive health and the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are discussed. It also addresses the need for birth control and various methods of contraception, including medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) and amniocentesis. The chapter provides an overview of infertility issues and assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF, ZIFT, and GIFT, with a focus on general awareness.

Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution

Chapter 5: Inheritance and Variation

This chapter explores the concepts of heredity and variation. It covers Mendelian inheritance and discusses deviations from Mendelism, including incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles, and the inheritance of blood groups. The chapter introduces the elementary idea of polygenic inheritance and discusses the chromosome theory of inheritance, chromosomes, genes, and sex determination in humans, birds, and honey bees. It also covers linkage and crossing over, sex-linked inheritance, and Mendelian disorders in humans like thalassemia and chromosomal disorders such as Down's syndrome, Turner's syndrome, and Klinefelter's syndrome.

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

This chapter explores the search for genetic material and the role of DNA as genetic material. It discusses the structure of DNA and RNA, DNA packaging, DNA replication, the Central Dogma, transcription, genetic code, translation, and gene expression and regulation, including the lac operon. The chapter also highlights the Genome, Human Genome Project, and rice genome projects, as well as DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter 7: Evolution

The chapter begins by exploring the origin of life and then delves into biological evolution and the evidence supporting it, including palaeontology, comparative anatomy, embryology, and molecular evidence. It discusses Darwin's contributions and presents the modern synthetic theory of evolution. The mechanisms of evolution, including variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection, are explained using examples. It covers types of natural selection, gene flow, genetic drift, Hardy-Weinberg's principle, adaptive radiation, and human evolution.

Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 8: Health and Diseases

This chapter addresses pathogens and parasites that cause human diseases, including malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, and ringworm, along with their control methods. It introduces basic concepts of immunology, including vaccines, and discusses cancer, HIV, and AIDS. Additionally, it touches on adolescence and the issues of drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

This chapter explores the role of microbes in various applications, such as food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation, bio-control, and bio-fertilization. It discusses the production and judicious use of antibiotics.

Unit IX: Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter 11: Principles and Processes of Biotechnology

This chapter introduces genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology.

Chapter 12: Applications of Biotechnology

It discusses the applications of biotechnology in health and agriculture, including the production of human insulin and vaccines, stem cell technology, gene therapy, genetically modified organisms like Bt crops, and the associated issues of biosafety, biopiracy, and patents.

Unit X: Ecology and Environment

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

This chapter covers population interactions such as mutualism, competition, predation, and parasitism, as well as population attributes like growth, birth rate, death rate, and age distribution. (Note: Topics excluded are Organism and its Environment, Major Abiotic Factors, Responses to Abiotic Factors, and Adaptations.)

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

This chapter explores ecosystems, including their patterns and components. It discusses productivity, decomposition, energy flow, and pyramids of number, biomass, and energy. (Note: Topics excluded are Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles.)

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

The chapter introduces the concept of biodiversity, its patterns, importance, and the consequences of biodiversity loss. It discusses biodiversity conservation, hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, the Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and Ramsar sites.

Also Read: CBSE Board Exams 2024: Additional Practice Sample Papers for Class 12

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Exam Pattern

Class 12 Biology coursework is both comprehensive and demanding. It encompasses a broad spectrum of subjects and requires students to possess a strong grasp of biology. Nonetheless, it is a gratifying endeavour, and through a comprehensive grasp of the material, students will gain a profound comprehension of biology and the skills required to succeed in higher education and the future. Here is the table outlining the structure of the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus for the academic year 2023-24.








Genetics and Evolution



Biology and Human Welfare



Biotechnology and its Applications



Ecology and Environment




CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Practical Syllabus

The 2023-24 CBSE Class 12 Biology Practical Syllabus offers diverse experiments fostering students' practical prowess and subject comprehension. Integral to the broader Biology syllabus, it equips learners with essential skills and insights for academic and professional success.

A. List of Experiments

  • Create a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.

  • Investigate plant population density using the quadrat method.

  • Analyse plant population frequency through the quadrat method.

  • Prepare a temporary mount of an onion root tip for studying mitosis.

  • Extract DNA from various plant materials, such as spinach, green pea seeds, and papaya.

B. Study and Observe the Following (Spotting)

  • Examine flowers adapted to pollination by different agents, including wind, insects, and birds.

  • Observe pollen germination on stigma using either a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.

  • Identify stages of gamete development, such as transverse sections of the testis and ovary through permanent slides (from grasshoppers or mice).

  • Study meiosis in onion bud cells or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.

  • Examine transverse sections of the blastula through permanent slides (mammalian).

  • Investigate Mendelian inheritance patterns using seeds of different colours and sizes from any plant.

  • Create pedigree charts for various genetic traits, such as tongue rolling, blood groups, ear lobes, widow's peak, and colour blindness.

  • Explore controlled pollination methods, including emasculation, tagging, and bagging.

  • Study common disease-causing organisms, such as Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, and fungi causing ringworm, using permanent slides, models, virtual images, or specimens. Provide commentary on the symptoms of the diseases they cause.

C. Items for Identification/Familiarity with Apparatus for Assessment in Practicals (All Experiments)

Items include beakers, flasks, petri plates, soil from various sites (sandy, clayey, loamy), small potted plants, aluminium foil, paintbrushes, test tubes, starch solution, iodine, ice cubes, Bunsen burners/spirit lamps/water baths, large flowers, maize inflorescences, models illustrating developmental stages like the morula and blastula of frogs, beads/seeds of different shapes, sizes, and textures, Ascaris models, and Cactus/Opuntia models.

D. List of Practical Experiments

  • Investigate flowers adapted to pollination by different agents, including wind and insects.

  • Examine transverse sections of the morula or blastula of frogs using a model.

  • Explore Mendelian inheritance patterns using beads or seeds with different sizes and textures.

  • Create pedigree charts for genetic traits such as tongue rolling and colour blindness.

  • Study emasculation, tagging, and bagging by conducting controlled pollination exercises.

  • Identify common disease-causing organisms, like Ascaris (model), and understand the associated symptoms.

  • Analyse the morphological adaptations of plants in xerophytic conditions. Please note that these practicals may emphasise hands-on experience rather than recording observations.

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Deleted Syllabus

The latest 2023-24 Biology syllabus for senior secondary students from the CBSE board is accessible on the academic website This updated syllabus aligns with the NEP 2020 framework, prioritising experiential learning and a creative mindset over excessive content and memorization.

The 12th-grade CBSE Biology syllabus has been streamlined into five units, encompassing a total of 13 chapters. This table presents a comprehensive breakdown of the CBSE Class 12 Biology Deleted Syllabus for 2023-24, organised by units and chapters, with clear page references to ensure student clarity. 

Unit & Chapter

Deleted Topic

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms

  • (whole chapter deleted)

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

  • (whole chapter deleted)

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

  • Organism and its Environment, Adaptations, Major Abiotic Factors, Responses to Abiotic Factors, 

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

  • Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles


A. List of Experiments

  • Collect soil samples from two distinct locations and analyse them for texture, moisture levels, pH, and water retention. Then, observe the plant species inhabiting these soils and establish correlations.

  • Gather water samples from two nearby bodies of water, examining their pH levels, transparency, and the presence of any living organisms.

  • Examine airborne suspended particles at two significantly different locations.

  • Investigate how varying temperatures and three distinct pH levels impact the activity of salivary amylase on starch.


B. Study/observation of the following (Spotting)

  • Examine two plants and two animals (models or virtual representations) thriving in arid environments. Evaluate their morphological adaptations.

  • Assess two plants and two animals (models or virtual representations) thriving in aquatic environments. Analyse their morphological adaptations.

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Sample Paper

Students who have opted for Biology as their subject in Class 12 can improve their understanding of the format in which Biology questions will be presented in the 2023-24 Board examination by practising the CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Biology for that academic year. Along with the most recent sample question papers, we have also made available Biology Sample Papers from previous years for CBSE Class 12. Refer to the table below for further information:

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-2024 Sample Paper


CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-2024 Sample Paper Download Links


CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-2024 Sample Paper Set 1


CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-2024 Sample Paper Set 2


CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-2024 Sample Paper Set 3


CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-2024 Sample Paper Set 4

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Admit Card Download

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is anticipated to release the admit cards for the 2023-24 academic session's Class 12 Biology examination in February 2024. The admit card serves as a crucial document that students are required to bring with them to the examination venue. It encompasses essential information pertaining to both the student and the exam, including the student's name, roll number, date of birth, exam date, examination time, examination centre, and subject code.

To download the CBSE Class 12 Biology admit card for the 2023-24 academic session, students can adhere to these guidelines:

  1. Access the official CBSE website.

  2. Select the link labelled "CBSE Class 12 Admit Card Download 2024."

  3. The 'Authentication details' page will materialise on the screen.

  4. Input your school code and centre number.

  5. Click on the 'Submit' button.

  6. You will be directed to a page where you can input your roll number.

  7. Enter your roll number and click on the 'Submit' button.

  8. Your admit card will be exhibited on the screen.

  9. Proceed to download and print a duplicate of your admit card for future reference.

Note: The CBSE Class 12 Biology admit card for the 2023-24 academic session will not be dispatched to students through postal services. Consequently, students are required to obtain their admit cards exclusively from the official CBSE website.

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 Preparation Tips

Getting ready for the CBSE Class 12 Biology exam necessitates a well-thought-out approach and a comprehensive grasp of the subject matter. Biology encompasses a broad array of topics, so effective planning is essential. Here are some specific tips tailored to CBSE Class 12 Biology preparation:

  1. Understand the syllabus: Start by gaining a solid understanding of the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus. This will aid in identifying the topics that need attention and setting study priorities.

  2. Textbook is Most Important: The NCERT Biology textbook is the cornerstone of your preparation. Thoroughly read it and ensure complete comprehension of each concept. NCERT books serve as the primary reference for CBSE exams.

  3. Create Notes: While studying the textbook, generate concise and well-organised notes. Emphasise key points, diagrams, and significant terminology. These notes will be valuable for quick review.

  4. Practice Diagrams: Given the prevalence of diagrams in Biology, practice drawing them. Gain a solid grasp of labelling and annotating techniques for diagrams such as the human heart, brain, and cell structures. Neat and precise diagrams can earn you additional marks.

  5. Emphasise NCERT Exemplar Problems: Following the study of each chapter, tackle the more demanding NCERT Exemplar problems. These go beyond standard textbook questions and facilitate a deeper understanding of the concepts.

  6. Utilise Past Year Papers: Resolve previous years' question papers to become familiar with the examination pattern and the types of questions asked. This will also aid in time management during the actual exam.

  7. Grasp Theories and Laws: Topics like Mendel's laws, the Hardy-Weinberg principle, and evolutionary theories necessitate a robust conceptual grasp. Focus on these topics as they carry significant weightage.

  8. Biochemistry: Devote special attention to subjects like DNA replication, protein synthesis, and enzymes. Grasp the processes and structures involved.

  9. Ecology and Environment: In the ecology section, delve into various ecosystems, food chains, and ecological pyramids. Pay heed to environmental issues and conservation, and stay informed about contemporary environmental challenges.

  10. Human Physiology: Thoroughly understand topics like the circulatory system, nervous system, and endocrine system. Gain insight into the operations of organs, hormones, and their effects on the body.

  11. Genetics and Biotechnology: Achieve a strong understanding of concepts related to genetic disorders, genetic engineering, and biotechnological applications. Be proficient in solving genetic crosses and pedigrees.

  12. Practise Long answers: During the exam, you'll need to write long answers. Practice structuring your answers with an introduction, core content, and a conclusion. Employ scientific terminology accurately.

CBSE Class 12 Biology 2023-24 FAQs

  1. What are the deleted topics in Biology class 12 2023-2024?

The following topics have been deleted from the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus for 2023-2024: Reproduction in Organisms, Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production, and Environmental Issues. 

  1. What is the course of Biology for 2023-2024?

The revised Biology course for Class 12 for the academic year 2023-2024 includes the following units: Reproduction, Genetics and Evolution, and Biology and Human Welfare. 

  1. What is the weightage of Biology Class 12 CBSE 2023-24?

The weightage of Biology Class 12 CBSE 2023-24 is as follows: Unit I: Reproduction (35 marks), Unit II: Genetics and Evolution (35 marks), and Unit III: Biology and Human Welfare (30 marks). 

  1. Can I complete biology in 3 months for CBSE boards?

It is possible to complete Biology in 3 months for CBSE boards if you are disciplined and focus on your studies. However, it is important to note that Biology is a vast subject, and it will require a lot of hard work and dedication to master the material in such a short period of time. 

  1. Is the CBSE 12th Biology paper tough?

The CBSE 12th Biology paper is generally considered to be of moderate difficulty. However, the difficulty level of the paper can vary depending on the student's preparation level. 

  1. Does CBSE repeat questions in class 12 Biology?

Yes, CBSE does repeat questions in the Class 12 Biology paper. However, the questions are usually rephrased or modified in some way. Therefore, it is important for students to understand the concepts thoroughly rather than memorising questions.

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